Eoin Travers

Jonathan Rolison

Aidan Feeney

Jonathan Rolison

Aidan Feeney

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Queen's University Belfast

Explore

- Similarity vs. Categories in Induction
- Associative vs. Structured knowledge in Induction
- Descriptions vs. Base-Rate information

- One or two processes?
- A less contentious proposition:

Processes with/without Working Memory - Predictions about conflict

An archetypal dual process task?

A bat an a ball together cost €1.10

A ball on its own costs 10c.

How much does the bat cost?

When should we see it?

Single-process theories

Selective/Pre-emptive conflict resolution dual processes

Corrective/Default-Interventionist dual processes

Competitive/Parallel-Competitive dual processes

Intuitive logic

- HTML5 experiment, large computer lab
- 8x Questions: 4 conflict, 4 control
- 131 participants(!)
- Analysis of first 60 seconds mouse data

A bat an a ball together cost €1.10

A ball on its own costs 10c.

How much does the bat cost?

A bat and a ball together costs £1.05.

A bat costs £1.

How much does a ball cost?

Conflict trials | Control trials | |

Heuristic choices | 58.3% | 15.9% |

Correct choices | 35.6% | 75.1% |

Other choices | 6.1% | 8.8% |

Conflict trials | Control trials | |

Heuristic choices | 58.3% | 15.9% |

Correct choices | 35.6% | 75.1% |

Other choices | 6.1% | 8.8% |

Conflict trials | Control trials | |

Heuristic choices | 58.3% | 9.8% |

Correct choices | 35.6% | 80.8% |

Other choices | 6.1% | 9.2% |

Comparing responses

Choice | N | RT | Path length | Proximity |
---|---|---|---|---|

Correct | 181 | 27.27 | 8.68 | 0.99 |

Heuristic | 297 | 21.02 | 7.52 | 1.12 |

p | < .05 | < .1 | < .05 |

Baseline condition

Condition | N | RT | Path length |
---|---|---|---|

Conflict (Correct choices) |
181 | 27.27 | 8.68 |

Baseline | 382 | 23.75 | 8.05 |

Conflict (Heuristic choices) |
297 | 21.02 | 7.52 |

p | >.1 | >.1 |

Quarter speed

$P(Heuristic) - P(Other)$

$P(Correct) - P(Other)$

$$ y = \begin{cases} 0 & if\ t\ <\ \tau \\ \beta * t & otherwise \end{cases}\\ \tau \sim Uniform(0, max(t)) $$

$P(Heuristic) - P(Other)$

MLE | 2.5% | 97.5% | |

$\tau$ | 3.829 | 3.665 | 3.978 |

$\beta$ | .027 | .026 | .028 |

$\sigma$ | .012 | .011 | .013 |

$P(Correct) - P(Other)$

MLE | 2.5% | 97.5% | |

$\tau$ | 9.268 | 9.032 | 9.484 |

$\beta$ | .014 | .014 | .015 |

$\sigma$ | .013 | .013 | .014 |

Single-process theories

Selective dual processes

Corrective dual processes

Competitive dual processes

Intuitive logic

Polynomial growth curve

$$ P( Fixation_t) = \\ Logit(\alpha + \beta_{1}t + \beta_{2}t^2\color{red}{^*} + \beta_{3}t^3\color{red}{^*}) \\ \color{red}{^* p < .05} $$

Single process theories

Selective dual processes

Corrective dual processes

Competitive dual processes

Intuitive-logic

Polynomial growth curve

$$ P( Fixation_t) =\\ Logit( \alpha \color{red}{^{**}} + \beta_{1}t \color{red}{^{**}} +\\ \beta_{2}t^2 \color{red}{^{***}} + \beta_{3}t^3 \color{red}{^{***}})\\ \color{red}{^{**} p < .01;\ ^{***} p < .001} $$

* Early* mouse movements predict choices

$$ ^{.} p < .1;\ ^{*} p < .05;\ ^{**} p < .01;\ ^{***} p < .001 $$

Attraction to heuristic response when selecting correct one

...but not the other way around.

Consistent with *Corrective*,
or *Default-Interventionist* dual process theories

- Not single process theories?
- Not selective dual process?
- Not parallel dual process?
- Not intuitive logic?

Development of decisions over long time scale

- Is this just eye-tracking?
- Does this work for other tasks?
- What's next?